Beginners Introduction to ASP.NET Framework

.NET Interview questions

ASP.net framework

Architecture is explained form bottom to top in the following discussion.

  1. At the bottom of the Architecture is Common Language Runtime. NET Framework common language runtime resides on top of the operating system services. The common language runtime loads and executes code that targets the runtime. This code is therefore called managed code. The runtime gives you, for example, the ability for cross-language integration.
  2. .NET Framework provides a rich set of class libraries. These include base classes, like networking and input/output classes, a data class library for data access, and classes for use by programming tools, such as debugging services. All of them are brought together by the Services Framework, which sits on top of the common language runtime.
  3. ADO.NET is Microsoft’s ActiveX Data Object (ADO) model for the .NET Framework. ADO.NET is not simply the migration of the popular ADO model to the managed environment but a completely new paradigm for data access and manipulation.ADO.NET is intended specifically for developing web applications. This is evident from its two major design principles:
    1. Disconnected Datasets. In ADO.NET, almost all data manipulation is done outside the context of an open database connection.
    2. Effortless Data Exchange with XML Datasets can converse in the universal data format of the Web, namely XML.
  4. The 4th layer of the framework consists of the Windows application model and, in parallel, the Web application model.
    The Web application model-in the slide presented as ASP.NET-includes Web Forms and Web Services.
    ASP.NET comes with built-in Web Forms controls, which are responsible for generating the user interface. They mirror typical HTML widgets like text boxes or buttons. If these controls do not fit your needs, you are free to create your own user controls.

    Web Services brings you a model to bind different applications over the Internet. This model is based on existing infrastructure and applications and is therefore standard-based, simple, and adaptable.

    Web Services are software solutions delivered via Internet to any device. Today, that means Web browsers on computers, for the most part, but the device-agnostic design of .NET will eliminate this limitation.

  5. One of the obvious themes of .NET is unification and interoperability between various programming languages. In order to achieve this; certain rules must be laid and all the languages must follow these rules. In other words we can not have languages running around creating their own extensions and their own fancy new data types. CLS is the collection of the rules and constraints that every language (that seeks to achieve .NET compatibility) must follow.
  6. The CLR and the .NET Frameworks in general, however, are designed in such a way that code written in one language can not only seamlessly be used by another language. Hence ASP.NET can be programmed in any of the .NET compatible language whether it is VB.NET, C#, Managed C++ or JScript.NET.

1) Intermediate Language (IL, MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) or CIL (Common Intermediate Language).

All .NET source code is compiled to IL. This IL is then converted to machine code at the point where the software is installed, or at run-time by a Just-In- Time (JIT) compiler.

2) What is a CLR?

Full form of CLR is Common Language Runtime and it forms the heart of the .NET framework. All Languages have runtime and its the responsibility of the runtime to take care of the code execution of the program.

a)       Garbage Collection: – When objects are not referred GC automatically releases those memories thus providing efficient memory management.

b)      Code Access Security: – CAS grants rights to program Example the program has rights to edit or create a new file does not allow the program to delete a file.

c)        Code Verification It prevents the source code to perform illegal operation such as accessing invalid memory locations etc.

3) What is a CTS?

In order that different language supported by ASP.net communicate smoothly CLR has CTS (Common Type System).Example in VB you have “Integer” and in C++ you have “long” these data types are not compatible so Microsoft introduced Common Type System. So “Integer” data type in VB6 and “int” data type in C++ will convert it to System.int32 which is data type of CTS. CLS

4) What is a Common language specification?

CLS is guidelines that language to follow so that it can communicate with other .NET languages in a seamless manner.

5)      What is a Managed Code

Managed code runs inside the environment of CLR i.e. .

6)       What is a Assembly?

Assembly are the physical collection of deployment units like DLL,EXE ,html.

Assembly are self describing in nature all the meta data information i.e. versioning information, references to other assemblies, type definitions are stored in Manifest.

IDASM.exe can be use to view assembly

Reflection is used to view manifest information.

7) Types of assemblies.

There are two types of assembly Private and Public assembly. A private assembly is normally used by a single application, and is stored in the application’s directory, or a sub-directory. A shared assembly is normally stored in the global assembly cache, e.g. Crystal report classes which will be used by all application for Reports.

8) GAC and strong name space

The public assemblies are usually stored in Global assembly cache.

GAC requires strong name space, SN space is similar to GUID which should be unique to time and space.

In ASP.net command prompt

Sn.exe –K “Path” is used to create SN.

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